A Level: Computer Organization and Operating System (A6-R5, NIELIT / DOEACC)



    Operating System is an intermediate software layer between the user and computer hardware. The program which is executed on the computer requires different resources like memory, hardware, CPU, etc. On the other hand, a computer consists of various blocks memory, ALU, control unit, input/output devices, and other peripherals. This module provides information on both the topics, Computer Organization and Operating System. The functions of the Operating System help the user to interact with all components of computers.


    The objectives of this module are:

    • To have a thorough understanding of the basic structure and operation of a digital computer.
    • To discuss in detail the operation of the arithmetic unit including the algorithms & implementation of fixed-point and floating-point addition, subtraction, multiplication & division.
    • To study the communication with I/O devices and standard I/O interfaces.
    • To study the hierarchal memory system including cache memories and virtual memory.
    • To gain knowledge of functions of operating systems like memory management, scheduling, file system and interface, distributed systems, security, and deadlocks.
    • To understand how an Operating System handles multiple processes.


    120 Hours – (Theory: 70 hrs + Practical: 50 hrs)

    Detailed Syllabus

    Part 1 – Computer Organization

    (i) Basic Structure of Computers

    Structure of a Computer System, Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control Unit, Bus Structure, Von Neumann Architecture.

    (ii) Computer Arithmetic Operations

    Introduction to logic gates, Boolean algebra, Data Representation-Number system, Fixed and Floating point numbers, Floating-point representation, Signed numbers, Binary Arithmetic, 1’s and 2’s Complements Arithmetic, Binary adder, 2’s Complement method for multiplication, Map Simplification.

    (iii) Central Processing Unit and Instructions:

    General Register Organization, Types of Instructions, Instruction Formats, Addressing Modes, Data Transfer and Manipulation, Program Control, Instruction cycle.

    (iv) Memory Organization:

    Characteristics of Memory Systems, Type of memories, Main memory, Static & Dynamic memories, Secondary Memory, Performance Considerations, Cache Memory with mapping, Virtual Memory, Address memory used pages, page replacement, Introduction to RAID.

    (v) I/O Organization

    Peripheral Devices, Input-Output Interface, Asynchronous Data Transfer Modes, Interrupt handling, Types of Interrupts, Priority Interrupt, Direct Memory Access, Input-Output Processor (IOP), Synchronous and Asynchronous Data Transfer.

    Part 2 – Operating System

    (vi) Operating Systems Overview:

    Overview of Computer Operating Systems, Types of OS, Functions of OS, Protection and Security, Distributed Operating Systems, System Calls, Scheduling algorithms, memory management, threads.

    (vii) Linux Basics

    Open source, Overview of Linux, Basic Linux commands, the structure of kernel and shell, Getting help, Linux File System, Some Important Directories, Inodes, Current Working Directory, File and Directory Names, Absolute and Relative Pathnames, Creating and Removing Directories, Changing Directories, Listing Directory Contents, Creating and Removing Files, Copying Files and Directories, Moving and Renaming Files and Directories, fundamental file types, Hard Links, Symbolic ( or soft) Links, Viewing and working with large Text files – cat, more, less, head, tail, cut commands, search text within a file, grep.

    (viii) Process Management and Shell Script

    Processes: Definition, Process Relationship, Process states, Process State transitions, Process Control Block, Context switching – Threads – Concept of multi-threads, Listing Processes, Finding Processes, Foreground and background processes, Interactive Process management tools, Sending signals to processes. Shell Script, shell variables, control structure using variables in the shell script.

    (ix) Users, Groups, and Permissions

    Users, Groups, Linux File Security, Examining Permissions, accessing root user, creating user and groups, Changing File Ownership, Changing Permissions – Symbolic Method, Numeric Method, /etc/password, /etc/shadow and /etc/group files, Monitoring Logins, Default Permissions, Special Permissions umask, password.

    (x) Standard I/O and Pipes

    Standard Input and Output, Redirecting Output to a File, Redirecting STDOUT to a Program(Piping), Combining Output and Errors, Redirecting to Multiple Targets (tee), Redirecting STDIN from a file.

    (xi) Finding and Processing Files

    Locate, find, Basic find Examples, find and Logical Operators, find and Permissions, find, and Access Times.

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